I was trying to convert pytorch bert-like model from torch to onnx and see if I can run it in onnxruntime. Here’s the environment I used

  • python: 3.9
  • torch: 1.9.0
  • onnx: 1.10.2
  • onnxruntime-gpu: 1.9.0

I converted by pytorch model to onnx with the following line

# convert pytorch model to onnx
model = load_model(some_ckpt)
torch.onnx.export(model, model_input_args, output_filepath)

then I tried to load the onnx file and run it with onnxruntime like this:

import onnxruntime as ort, numpy as np

sess = ort.InferenceSession(onnx_file) # << where error occurs

test_input = .... # prepare dummy input using numpy arrays

output =, test_input)  

and then the exception with the following description appears.

[ONNXRuntimeError] : 10 : INVALID_GRAPH : Load model from test.onnx failed:This is an invalid model. Type Error: Type 'tensor(int64)' of input parameter (262) of operator (Min) in node (Min_84) is invalid.
  File "/", line 17, in <module>
    sess = ort.InferenceSession(onnx_file)

Cause & Solution

The error was hard to comprehend because it seems so unlikely that a simple ‘Min’ operation would not work just because the two inputs have ‘int64’ type.

I checked if the two inputs had different types, but it was the same after inspecting it with Netron, a model graph visualization tool.

The cause was due to low onnx opset version used when exporting from pytorch. By default, the torch.onnx.export function will used onnx opset 9. But according to the docs, while the latest Min operation introduced since onnx opset version 13 supports pretty much all types including “int64” type, the version range 8-11 only supports type “float16”, “float”, and “double”. My exported onnx used used version 9 so this was causing the problem.

The solution is then to export pytorch model to onnx using a higher onnx opset version. I decided to use 13 since this seems to be the highest onnx opset version number supported by pytorch 1.9.0.

The exporting code was changed like this:

# convert pytorch model to onnx
model = load_model(some_ckpt)
torch.onnx.export(model, model_input_args, output_filepath, opset_version=13)

and rerunning the onnx load and run code, it works this time.


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